Fungi are the most common cause of dandruff. Therefore, antifungal agents comes first when we speak about dandruff treatments.
Antifungal agents. The most common topical preparations successfully used to treat dandruff include ketoconazole, zinc pyrithione, selenium sulfide, sulfur and coal tar. The antifungals are generally used as shampoos. All of these agents possess activity against P. ovale.
In addition to antifungal activity, several other mechanisms have been identified. Zinc pyrithione decreases the turnover of the rapidly dividing epidermal cells. Coal tar has antiseptic, antipruritic (anti-itching), and exfoliating properties.
Other treatments. Salicylic acid is an exfoliating agent that loosens the scalp scales and aids in their removal. It is often used in combination with one of the antifungal treatments. In cases of extensive or severe seborrheic dermatitis, patients should be treated by a physician. In these cases, the physician may prescribe the use of topical corticosteroids.
Hair loss is considered to be one of the most common problems together with dandruff. There are a number of factors that may lead to severe hair loss.
1. Poor health can lead to massive hair loss because of multiple factors. Also, extreme poor health condition such as people going through chemotherapy might also lead to hair loss. Medication can also be linked to hair loss as usually these medications have side effects.
2. Hair and your endocrine system. Examples of endocrine systems are your adrenal, organs, thyroid, pancreas, and thymus that control the task of your body’s health by releasing hormones. One of such hormone that influences hair loss and hair growth is testosterone. Testosterone is on the other hand linked to DHT that affects hair growth by disturbing your hair’s follicle and destroying it. Nevertheless when your endocrine failed to control this hormone, this would lead to hair loss.
3. Diet and hair loss. The food that you consume gives your body the resources as a building block for your hormones. If you diet and don’t consume food the right food, it would also lead to hair loss.
4. Stress is the number one factor when it comes to hair loss. Usually people who are exposed to stress would have higher amount of hair loss compared to those that control it well.
Dandruff (pityriasis capitis) occurs when the scalp sheds larger than normal amounts of dead epidermal cells. It is sometimes associated with seborrhea where sebum production is excessive. Dandruff shares some features with seborrheic dermatitis, and both conditions are frequently treated with common topical medications. Seborrheic dermatitis generally affects body sites in addition to the scalp, including the forehead, nasolabial fold, eyelash and eyebrow regions, and the outer ear.
The peak incidence and severity of dandruff occurs at approximately 20 years of age. Dandruff appears on the scalp as small white or gray scales. In the presence of seborrhea, the scales may appear greasy and yellow in color. The greasy scales combine with exudates to form crusts, beneath which the scalp is red and moist. Shampooing removes the scales temporarily, however they return within several days.
Dandruff is associated with fewer cell layers in the outer most portion of the epidermis, however the cells are often irregular and display a rapid turnover rate. The reason for the rapid turnover is uncertain. For many years dandruff has been associated with the presence of yeast/fungi of the genus Malassezia or Pityrosporum. At this time, the species Pityrosporum ovale is considered the main causative agent, although some investigators argue that the altered flora of the scalp is secondary to increased epidermal proliferation. Seborrheic dermatitis has also been associated with the activities of Pityrosporum fungi. Effective therapies of both dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis have been linked to agents that inhibit these organisms.